Breastfeeding is universal, it’s protects children everywhere and gives them the best, healthiest start in life!

No country in the world fully meets recommended standards for breastfeeding. The Global Breastfeeding Scorecard, which evaluated 194 nations, found that only 40 per cent of children younger than six months are breastfed exclusively (given nothing but breast milk) and only 23 countries have exclusive breastfeeding rates above 60 per cent.

Breastfeeding has an extraordinary range of benefits.

Evidence shows that breastfeeding has cognitive and health benefits for both infants and their mothers. It is especially critical during the first six months of life, helping prevent diarrhoea and pneumonia, two major causes of death in infants. Mothers who breastfeed have a reduced risk of ovarian and breast cancer, two leading causes of death . Breastmilk works like a baby’s first vaccine, protecting infants from potentially deadly diseases and giving them all the nourishment they need to survive and thrive.

Breastfeeding is one of the most effective – and cost effective – investments nations can make in the health of their youngest members and the future health of their economies and societies. It improves nutrition ,prevents child mortality and decreases the risk of non-communicable diseases ,and supports cognitive development and education
Breastfeeding is also an enabler to ending poverty, promoting economic growth and reducing inequalities.

In addition,
The act of breastfeeding itself stimulates proper growth of the mouth and jaw, and secretion of hormones for digestion and satiety. Breastfeeding creates a special bond between mother and baby and the interaction between the mother and child during breastfeeding has positive repercussions for life, in terms of stimulation, behaviour, speech, sense of wellbeing and security and how the child relates to other people.

Breastfeeding also lowers the risk of chronic conditions later in life, such as obesity, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetes, childhood asthma and childhood leukaemias. Studies have shown that breastfed infants do better on intelligence and behaviour tests into adulthood than formula-fed babies.

For more information please contact: +234 8172175011, +2348172175013, +23408172175011, +23408174210021

Living with sickle cell disease

People with sickle cell disease need comprehensive healthcare; the disease comes with many complications that can be anticipated, prevented and managed effectively. Many patients are living full and healthy lives.

Children are born with the sickle cell disease; it is not contagious. It is passed down from parent to child when both parents have the sickle cell trait “AS”, or one parent has sickle cell disease “SS”, and the other parent has the trait “AS”.

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited disorder of the protein haemoglobin in the red blood cell that affects millions of adults and children around the world. It is caused by a genetic mutation in the body system that makes it produce a different kind of haemoglobin called haemoglobin S, and this causes a change in the shape of the red blood cell from its normal disc-shape to being sickled in shape giving it its name “sickle” cell disease. These misshaped cells break down easily causing anaemia, and they live for only 10-20 days instead of the normal 120 days.

To be infected with the sickle cell disease, you need to have two altered haemoglobin genes; one from each parent. If you have only one of these altered genes, you will be referred to as a carrier of the disease. Nigeria has the highest burden of the Sickle Cell Disease in the world where the trait occurs in 25% to 30% (40 million) of the population. About 150,000 babies are being born every year yearly with this disease with infant deaths of about 100,000, which represents 8% of child mortality in the country. Testing for sickle cell disease can be done in the newborn (HPLC, IEF) or through haemoglobin electrophoresis (genotyping).

The hallmark of the disease is anaemia (decrease in red blood cells). Complications of the disease include pain crises, infection, stroke, kidney and liver dysfunction, and can also affect the lung, spleen and heart.  Due to the high mortality rate and complications of the disease, many developed countries have adopted comprehensive healthcare for SCD and the mortality reduced from 16-30% to less than 1%. In 2003 the University of Benin teaching hospital also adopted this extended health care for the management of their SCD patients with similar results.

Infections, pain, crises, anaemia and damage to body Organs are the most common complications of sickle cell disease. You should contact your doctor when you or your child/ward has a fever, chest pain, Jaundice (Eye/Skin looking yellow) or headache/dizziness.

Nisa Premier Hospital recently launched the Sickle cell disease clinic during the Sickle Cell Disease Awareness Day on June 18th, 2016 to better care for our patients with SCD. The clinic which has adopted the comprehensive healthcare management officially opened on the 10th of August 2016. The aim of the clinic is early detection and prevention of the complications of the disease, though:

  • Parent and patient  counselling and education
  • Routine medical care for the SCD patient through regular medical follow-up
  • Immunizations (routine and additional vaccines for patients with SCD)
  • Routine laboratory testing
  • Prophylaxis for malaria and bacterial infections
  • Early identification of fever/infection and its management
  • Vitamins (Folic Acid and Vitamin C)

Some of the services we currently offer at Nisa include:

  • Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for single cell genetic defects
  • Testing for sickle cell disease through haemoglobin electrophoresis (genotyping)
  • Sickle Cell Disease Clinic: The clinic is run by the consultants at a discounted price on consultation and some laboratory tests. The clinic is by appointment every Wednesday from 9 am to 4 pm at the Congo building outpatient department (Adults) and Lieberman OPD (Paediatrics).

At Nisa Premier Hospital, our goal is to provide the best comprehensive care for our sickle cell patients that will afford them the full and healthy life that they deserve. We look forward to seeing and serving you at our clinic!

For all enquiries on sickle cell and Anaemia, please call: 08090457744, 08174210023.

What You Should Know About Meningitis

Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges; the meninges are the three membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord. It stems from viral and bacterial infections. Other causes may include:

  • cancer
  • chemical irritation
  • fungi
  • drug allergies

Viral and bacterial meningitis are contagious. The symptoms may include fever, headache, stiff neck, and fatigue, rash, sore throat and intestinal symptoms may also occur.

They can be transmitted by coughing, sneezing, or close contact.

Some cases of meningitis improve without treatment (viral) in a few weeks. Others can be life-threatening (Bacterial) and require emergent antibiotic treatment.

The best way to protect yourself and your child of bacterial meningitis is to complete the recommended vaccine schedule and also maintaining a healthy lifestyle!

Understanding Breast Cancer — Diagnosis & Treatment

How Is Breast Cancer diagnosed

Treatment of breast cancer work best when you find the disease early. So it’s important to get the right screening test at the right time.If you’re diagnosed with the disease, it helps to learn as much as you can about your treatment options before you choose the one you want.

Breast Self-Exams and Mammograms

Breast self-exams are a cancer screening option for women starting in their 20s. Experts don’t agree on whether every woman needs to do them, so talk to your doctor about the pros and cons of checking your breasts and if it’s a good idea for you to start. If you decide to do them, ask your doctor to show you the right way to do it and what to watch for.

To do a self-exam, you’ll need to look at and feel your breasts. Stand in front of a mirror to look for dimpling or changes in shape or symmetry. The rest of the breast self-exam is easiest in the shower, using soap to smooth your skin With light pressure, check for lumps near the surface. Use firm pressure to explore deeper tissues. Gently pinch all parts of your nipple and the colored area around it, called the areola. If there is any discharge from your nipple — especially if it is bloody — see a doctor.

It may be better to do a self-exam 3 to 5 days after your period ends. Premenstrual changes can make your breast tissue feel thicker in some places, but it goes away after your period is over. Any time you find a new or unusual lump in your breast, have your doctor check it.

Mammograms are the most effective way to detect breast cancer.They can find lumps up to 2 years before you or a doctor can feel them by hand. But medical experts don’t agree on how often women need them. It is recommended that women have one every year starting at age 45. But the U.S. Preventive services Task Force says women should have mammograms every 2 years between the ages of 50 and 74. The group says that there is not enough research to know whether screening after age 74 is a good idea. The decision about when to have a mammogram is personal. If you’re over 40, talk to you doctor about when you should begin.

If you do find a lump during a self-exam or your doctor sees one on a mammogram, remember that most lumps aren’t Cancer.But it’s still important for your doctor to test it. There are a few different tests she might use. Imaging tests such as digital mammography,3-D mammography ,and ultrasounds can help her see if the lump has the physical features of a tumor. The only way to confirm that it’s cancer is to take some of the cells from the lump and look at them under a microscope. Your doctor can do this with a biopsy that uses a very thin needle.

What Are the Treatments for Breast Cancer?

If you have breast cancer,the earlier you can get treatment, the better. But before you decide what to do, research your options. Ask questions of your doctor, other specialists, and people who’ve had breast cancer. Find a doctor you trust, and don’t feel you have to rush to make a choice. A brief delay between diagnosis and treatment won’t make your therapy less effective. The treatment options for breast cancer depend on the size of your tumor and how far it has spread in your body, your age, and how healthy you are.

Surgery for Breast Cancer

For most people, the first step is to remove breast cancer with surgery, followed usually by some mix of radiation therapy, chemotherapy hormone therapy. The standard surgery for breast cancer used to be the removal of the entire breast and lymph nodes nearby, called a modified radical mastectomy.But today, many women who find breast cancer before it has spread can remove just the lump.

This operation, called a lumpectomy has proven to work just as well as mastectomy and the physical changes it causes are much less drastic. After this type of surgery, most women also get radiation therapy, chemotherapy,or hormone therapy. For breast cancer that has spread in the body and for disease that has come back after treatment, surgery usually isn’t the main treatment option.

Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer

This treatment uses powerful drugs to kill cancer cells. Your doctor might recommend it after you have surgery to kill any remaining cancer that the operation left behind. It helps reduce the chance that breast cancer will come back. If your tumor is large, you might get chemotherapy before surgery to shrink it so it’s easier to remove. Chemotherapy or hormone therapy are the main treatments for women whose cancer has spread to parts of the body outside of the breast and lymph nodes.

Radiation Therapy for Breast Cancer

In this treatment, high-energy waves destroy cancer cells. Doctors usually give radiation therapy after a lumpectomy and sometimes after a mastectomy to reduce the risk of cancer coming back in the same breast. The treatments generally start a few weeks after the surgery so the area has some time to heal. They can last for several days or a few weeks. If your doctor recommends chemotherapy along with radiation therapy, you’ll have the chemo first.

The type of radiation that most people know about is called external beam radiation. A machine focuses a beam of radiation on the tumor. It’s the most common type of radiation therapy for breast cancer.

The other type is called brachytherapy. It delivers radiation to the cancer through radioactive seeds or pellets — as small as grains of rice — that doctors place inside the breast near the cancer. You can get brachytherapy by itself or with external beam radiation. Tumor size, location, and other things determine if this type of radiation is right for you.

Reconstructive Breast Surgery

After a mastectomy, reconstructive plastic surgery can replace breast tissue that doctors had to remove along with the cancer, including skin and the nipple. The goal of reconstruction is to give the two breasts the same size and shape again. You might get breast implants or doctors can move tissue from other parts of your body to your breast. Doctors can do it at the same time as the operation to remove the cancer or after you’re finished with chemotherapy or radiation.

Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer

When your doctor diagnoses you with breast cancer, she’ll see if lab tests show that your tumor depends on your natural hormones, estrogen or progesterone grow. If they do, she’ll call your disease estrogen receptor-positive or progesterone-receptor-positive breast cancer.

Hormone therapy, also called endocrine therapy, blocks your body’s natural hormones from reaching the cancer cells that use them. There are a few types. You can take drugs to block the effects of estrogen, have surgery to remove your ovaries (which make estrogen), or take medicine or have radiation to make the ovaries stop making the hormone.

The estrogen-blocking drug tamoxifen (Soltamox) is one of the most common hormone therapy drugs. Studies show that it lowers the chance that some early-stage cancers will come back and prevents cancer in the opposite breast. Tamoxifen works by blocking estrogen from attaching to cancer cells, which keeps them from growing.

Tamoxifen works for women before and after menopause.Most people take it for 5-10 years. While you take it, you should have a pelvic exam once a year, and let your doctor know if you have any unusual pain or bleeding.

Other types of hormone therapy keep the body from changing testosterone into estrogen. These drugs are called aromatase inhibitors. Examples are anastrozole (Arimidex) ,exemastane (Aromasin), and letrozole (Fermara) They only work in postmenopausal women, but they work better than tamoxifen. Most people take them for 5-10 years.

For premenopausal women, doctors sometimes can treat breast cancer by making the ovaries stop working. The treatment, called ovarian ablation, means removing the ovaries with surgery, treating them with radiation, or blocking the hormone that makes them work with a group of drugs known as LHRH or GnRH agonists. Most of the time, doctors use this treatment for cancer that has spread beyond the breast.

Targeted Therapy for Breast Cancer

Targeted therapy is another way to fight cancer. About 25% of women with breast cancer have too much of a protein known as HER2, which makes the cancer spread more quickly. Several targeted therapies fight HER2-positive breast cancer. Options include ado-trasumab emtansine (Kadcyla), lapatinip(Tykerb) ,pertuzumab (Perjeta), and trastuzumab (Herception) You can take them along with other medicines. For HER2-negative breast cancers, everolimus (Afinitor) or palbociclip (Ibrance) can treat women with advanced, hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer.

At-Home Recovery

After breast cancer surgery, a regular routine of simple exercises can ease muscle stiffness and help you move your body normally again. If you’ve had radiation, avoid wearing a tight-fitting bra or clothes that may irritate your skin around the treatment area. Keep your skin clean and wear loose clothing, and use only the skin lotions, creams, and deodorants that your doctor recommends.

Dry Skin and What You Can Do About It

When your skin is dry,

It can be uncomfortable — rough, itchy, and gray or ashy in color. It may feel tight, especially after you shower, bathe, or swim. You may have unusual redness and lines and cracks in the skin, sometimes deep enough that they bleed. Many things can cause it, and what you can do it about it depends on what brought it on.

Possible Cause: Your Age

You can have dry skin at any age, but you’re more likely to if you’re in your 50s or older. This is because the glands that make oil for your skin get smaller as you age and make less. Older adults are also more likely to have medical conditions like diabetes and kidney disease that can cause dry skin.

Possible Cause: Atopic Dermatitis

This is the most common kind of eczema. Dry, itchy skin is the most noticeable symptom, but you may also have a rash inside your elbows, behind your knees, and on your face, hands, and feet. It’s most often caused by an allergic reaction and usually can be managed if you moisturize your skin and stay away from what triggered it — detergent, perfume, sand, or cigarette smoke, for example.

Possible Cause: Your Job

You’re more likely to get dry skin and chronic skin conditions if you work with certain chemical and biological materials, or with extreme temperatures. The kinds of jobs that may affect your skin include food service, cosmetology, health care, agriculture, cleaning, painting, mechanics, printing, and construction. You can use protective gear, and try to be exposed to the materials as little as possible, especially if you see symptoms of dry skin or atopic dermatitis.

Possible Cause: Water

Soaking in the tub or showering for long periods is a common cause of dry skin. And the hotter the water, the worse it is. Pools and hot tubs that have a lot of chlorine in them are bad, too, because the chemical dries out your skin. It’s a good idea to keep the water on the cool side and your showers to a minimum — you’ll have healthier skin and a lower water bill.

Possible Cause: Smoking

Along with all the other health concerns around smoking, it also causes wrinkles and messes with the blood flow to your outermost layers of skin. And it leads to coarse, dry skin.

Possible Cause: Your Soap

Many popular soaps and shampoos clean your skin by removing oil. This can cause dry skin or make an outbreak even worse. Your doctor or pharmacist can suggest special cleansers that won’t dry out your skin.

Possible Cause: The Weather

Winter tends to dry out your skin more than other seasons because the humidity (moisture in the air) is typically much lower. Heating systems also dry out the air, and that doesn’t help, either. Take special care of your skin in this type of weather: Cover up, moisturize often, and avoid things that trigger allergic reactions.

Possible Cause: Fish Scale Disease

Known by scientists as ichthyosis vulgaris, it’s an inherited condition that makes dead skin cells bunch together in thick, dry scales. These usually show up on the skin in early childhood and can be tough to manage, both physically and emotionally. There’s no cure, but treatments can help control the symptoms. 

What You Can Do: Watch and Learn

Pinpointing the cause of an outbreak is one of the best ways to manage your dry skin. If you have bad dry skin fairly often, pay attention to what you do before it happens. You may need to stop doing it for a few days and use a specialized moisturizer, or wear gloves or other protection when you start again. 

What You Can Do: Moisturize

Oils, lotions, and creams can smooth and soften your skin, making it less likely to crack — and they can ease pain and itchiness. If you have very dry skin, something with lactic acid or urea may work best, because they can help your skin hold water. But they can sting if you put them on very dry, cracked skin. Ask your doctor what’s right for you.

What You Can Do: Take Medication

If your skin is very dry, your skin doctor (dermatologist at Nisa) may prescribe an ointment or cream to put on it, such as a corticosteroid or an immune modulator (this can help with your body’s response to something you’re allergic to). Combined with a moisturizer, these can relieve the itchiness, redness, and swelling. But keep in mind that some of these can stop working if you use them too often.

When to See a Doctor

You can usually manage dry skin with lifestyle changes, home remedies, and over-the-counter soaps and moisturizers. If these don’t seem to help, though, see your doctor, especially if dryness and itching keep you from sleeping well, or you have open sores or large areas of peeling skin.

An Ounce of Prevention …

You can do a few things to keep your skin moist and healthy: Put moisturizer on right after you bathe. Use a humidifier when the air is dry. Wear natural fibers, such as cotton and silk, because they allow your skin to breathe. (Wool, though natural, can sometimes irritate your skin.) Use detergent that doesn’t have dyes or perfumes, and cover up when the air is dry to help your body keep moisture.

Looking Good When You’re Feeling Bad

Bright, Pretty Eyes

All it takes is a little extra makeup to hide the signs of a bad cold.  Brighten the inner corners of red eyes with a soft peach or champagne eye shadow. Use a pencil liner that matches your skin tone on the rim of your lower eyelid to hide redness and make your eyes look bigger.

Waterproof and Pretty

Make your eyes look wide awake — even when they’re puffy, watery, and red — with a coat or two of waterproof mascara.

Get the Red Out

Are you glowing like Rudolph? A mint green color corrector will balance redness around your stuffy nose. Pat it around your nostrils, making sure to blend around the edges. Then apply a concealer that matches your skin tone over the green corrector.

Moisture to the Max

When you have a cold, you’re probably dehydrated. Even if your skin is dry, you can still get a bright, healthy complexion. Slather a rich moisturizer onto your skin when it’s still damp. It will help trap and hold moisture in better. In a pinch, extra virgin olive oil does the trick, too.

Getting Warmer

Use a creamy blush on the apples of your cheeks and blend it toward your temples to add dewy freshness to sallow skin. Brush a little bronzer on the high points of your face — nose, chin, and forehead — to add more warmth.

Smooth Move

When your lips are dry and cracked, you might be tempted to scrub the flaky skin off. Some experts say that’s a bad idea. Instead, pile on a petroleum jelly-based lip balm or moisturizer to lock in moisture until your lips have healed.

From the Inside Out

Fill ‘er up! While you’re sniffling, drink lots of water. This helps you avoid the dry, sagging skin that can come with mild dehydration. Lay off the alcohol and caffeine for a little while, too. They can dry you out.

Poof Puffiness

To help prevent swollen eyes in the morning, sleep on two pillows. The extra height can bring swelling down. Or try frozen gel packs or ice cubes under your eyes for 15 minutes. Wrap ice cubes in a paper towel and put them in a baggie

Brush Up

Clear skin starts with clean makeup brushes. Dirty ones are loaded with bacteria — especially when you have a cold. Work warm water and a dot of baby shampoo into the brush. Rinse bristles until the water runs clear and let air dry. For extra protection, go over them with an antibacterial wipe and let dry.

Art of Distraction

When you’re sick, wearing comfy PJs all day sounds like heaven. But if you want to hide how you feel while boosting your mood, wear something pretty, like a dress. It can help distract from your sniffles, plus it’s a full outfit in one step.

Prime Time

Help keep your makeup on your face, not your hands. Make foundation last all day — even through sneezing and eye-rubbing — by putting on primer first. Let it sink into your skin about 5 minutes before you apply foundation.

Go Natural

Stay sheer! A good way to keep your foundation from looking cakey and piled on is to mix it with your moisturizer. It thins out the foundation, giving you lighter, more natural coverage.





Foods That Help Fight Depression

Foods that help fight depression


The traditional Thanksgiving bird has the protein building-block tryptophan, which your body uses to make serotonin. That’s a brain chemical that plays a key role in depression, researchers say. In fact, some antidepressant drugs work by targeting the way your brain uses serotonin. You can get the same mood-boosting effect from chicken and soybeans.

Brazil Nuts

This snack is rich in selenium, which helps protect your body from tiny, damaging particles called free radicals. One study found that young people who didn’t have enough of this nutrient in their diets were more likely to be depressed. The researchers couldn’t say that low selenium caused depression, though. Just one Brazil nut has almost half your daily requirement of the mineral so be careful to limit how many you eat.


They’re full of beta-carotene, which you can also get from pumpkin, spinach, sweet potatoes, and cantaloupe. Studies have linked this nutrient to lower levels of depression. There’s not enough evidence to say that it can prevent the disorder, but it can’t hurt to get more in your diet.

Clams and Mussels

These seafood favorites are a good source of B-12. Some studies say that people with low levels of the vitamin are more likely to have depression. It may be that a lack of it causes a shortage of a substance called s-adenosylmethionine (SAM), which your brain needs to process other chemicals that affect your mood. If you’re looking for other B-12 foods, try lean beef, milk, and eggs.


A jolt of caffeine can be a pick-me-up that helps you feel more motivated. But if you have postpartum depression or panic disorder, some studies suggest that it might make your symptoms worse. Other researchers say a cup of joe can lower your risk of getting depression, though they’re not sure why.

Leafy Greens

They’re packed with folate, which your brain cells need to work well and which may help protect against depression. Food manufacturers in most developed countries, add this vitamin, also known as B9, to enriched grains like pasta and rice. You can also get it from lentils, lima beans, and asparagus.


This and other fish like herring and tuna are high in polyunsaturated fats. Researchers think those can help you fight depression. One type of these fats, called omega-3 fatty acids, may help brain cells use chemicals that can affect your mood. A few small studies show that people who weren’t depressed had higher levels of omega-3s than those with the mood disorder.


It’s a good source of vitamin D. If you have very low levels of this nutrient in your body, that can sometimes cause depression. One Norwegian study found that people who took a vitamin D supplement were less depressed a year later than those who didn’t. Don’t like milk? Boost the D in your diet with enriched cereals and juices, and canned fish.

Caution: Alcohol

It might seem like just the thing to take the edge off your worries or make you feel more social. But most of the time, it’s best if you drink wine, beer, and mixed drinks only in moderation. You might feel better in the moment, but heavy drinking can make depression symptoms worse over time, because alcohol makes your brain less active. It also can make antidepressant medications less effective.

Caution: Junk Food

It may be fast and filling, but these processed foods can be bad news for your mood. Scientists have studied how diets high in sugar, simple carbohydrates, and fatty foods affect how you feel. Many found some link between these unhealthy eats and depression. Your best bet: a well-balanced diet with plenty of fruits, vegetable

Preconception Health

Preconception health refers to the health of women and men during their reproductive years, which are the years they can have a child. It focuses on taking steps now to protect the health of a baby they might have sometime in the future.

However, all women and men can benefit from preconception health, whether or not they plan to have a baby one day. This is because part of preconception health is about people getting and staying healthy overall, throughout their lives. In addition, no one expects an unplanned pregnancy. But it happens often. In fact, about half of all pregnancies  are not planned.

Preconception Health Care

Preconception health care is the medical care a woman or man receives from the doctor or other health professionals that focuses on the parts of health that have been shown to increase the chance of having a healthy baby.

Preconception health care is different for every person, depending on his or her unique needs. Based on a person’s individual health, the doctor or other health care professional will suggest a course of treatment or follow-up care as needed. If your health care provider has not talked with you about this type of care―ask about it!

Healthy Women

Preconception health is important for every woman―not just those planning pregnancy. It means taking control and choosing healthy habits. It means living well, being healthy, and feeling good about your life. Preconception health is about making a plan for the future and taking the steps to get there!

Healthy Men

Preconception health is important for men, too. It means choosing to get and stay as healthy as possible―and helping others to do the same as well. As a partner, it means encouraging and supporting the health of your partner. As a father, it means protecting your children. Preconception health is about providing yourself and your loved ones with a bright and healthy future.

Healthy Babies

Preconception health is a precious gift to babies. For babies, preconception health means their parents took steps to get healthy before pregnancy. Such babies are less likely to be born early (preterm) or have a low birthweight. They are more likely to be born without birth defects or other disabling conditions.1 Preconception health gives babies the best gift of all―the best chance for a healthy start in life.

Healthy Families

Ensuring preconception health is a great way to create a healthy family. The health of a family relies on the health of the people in the family. Taking care of your health now will help to ensure a better quality of life for yourself and your family in the coming years.

How Do I Brush My Teeth?

The American Dental Association recommends the following techniques for brushing your teeth:
• Place your toothbrush at a 45-degree angle against the gums.
• Move the brush back and forth gently in short (tooth-wide) strokes.
• Brush the outer tooth surfaces, the inner tooth surfaces, and the chewing surfaces of the teeth.
• Use the tip of the brush to clean the inside surfaces of the front teeth, using a gentle up-and-down stroke.
• Brush your tongue to remove bacteria and freshen your breath.


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