International Women’s day!

 International Women’s day!

Being  International Women’s day!, we are looking at infertility in women, so we could reduce if possible ,eradicate this issue completely by proffering solutions!

Infertility is a condition that affects approximately 1 out of every 6 couples. An infertility diagnosis is given to a couple that has been unsuccessful in efforts to conceive over the course of one full year. When the cause of infertility exists within the female partner, it is referred to as female infertility. Female infertility factors contribute to approximately 50% of all infertility cases, and female infertility alone accounts for approximately one-third of all infertility cases.

Female Infertility: Causes, Treatment And Prevention

What causes female infertility?

The most common causes of female infertility include problems with ovulation,  damage to fallopian tubes or uterus, or problems with the cervix. Age can contribute to infertility because as a woman ages, her fertility naturally tends to decrease.

Ovulation problems may be caused by one or more of the following:

  • A hormone imbalance
  • A tumor or cyst
  • Eating disorders such as anorexia or bulimia
  • Alcohol or drug use
  • Thyroid gland problems
  • Excess weight
  • Stress
  • Intense exercises that causes a significant loss of body fat
  • Extremely brief menstrual cycle

Damage to the fallopian tubes or uterus can be caused by one or more of the following:

  • Pelvic inflammatory disease
  • A previous infection
  • Polyps in the uterus
  • Endometriosis or fibroids
  • Scar tissue or adhesions
  • Chronic medical illness
  • A certain ectopic (tubal) pregnancy
  • A birth defect
  • DES syndrome (The medication DES, given to women to prevent miscarriage or premature birth can result in fertility problems for their children.)

Abnormal cervical mucus can also cause infertility. Abnormal cervical mucus can prevent the sperm from reaching the egg or make it more difficult for the sperm to penetrate the egg.

How is female infertility diagnosed?

Potential female infertility is assessed as part of a thorough physical exam. The exam will include a medical history regarding potential factors that could contribute to infertility.

Healthcare providers may use one or more of the following tests/exams to evaluate fertility:

  • A urine or blood test to check for infections or a hormone problem, including thyroid function
  • Pelvic exam and breast exam
  • A sample of cervical mucus and tissue to determine if ovulation is occurring
  • Laparoscope inserted into the abdomen to view the condition of organs and to look for blockage, adhesions or scar tissue.
  • HSG, which is an x-ray used in conjunction with a colored liquid inserted into the fallopian tubes making it easier for the technician to check for blockage.
  • Hysteroscopy uses a tiny telescope with a fiber light to look for uterine abnormalities.
  • Ultrasound to look at the uterus and ovaries. May be done vaginally or abdominally.
  • Sonohystogram combines an ultrasound and saline injected into the uterus to look for abnormalities or problems.

Tracking your ovulation through fertility awareness will also help your healthcare provider assess your fertility status

How is female infertility treated?

Female infertility is most often treated by one or more of the following methods:

  • Taking hormones to address a hormone imbalance, endometriosis, or a short menstrual cycle
  • Taking medications to stimulate ovulation
  • Using supplements to enhance fertility
  • Taking antibiotics to remove an infection
  • Having minor surgery to remove blockage or scar tissues from the fallopian tubes, uterus, or pelvic area.

Can female infertility be prevented?

There is usually nothing that can be done to prevent female infertility caused by genetic problems or illness.

However, there are several things that women can do to decrease the possibility of infertility:

  • Take steps to erase sexually transmitted diseases
  • Avoid illicit drugs
  • Avoid heavy or frequent alcohol use
  • Adopt good personal hygiene and health practices
  • Have annual check ups with your GYN once you are sexually active

When should I contact my healthcare provider?

It is important to contact your healthcare provider if you experience any of the following symptoms:

  • Abnormal bleeding
  • Abdominal pain
  • Fever
  • Unusual discharge
  • Pain or discomfort during intercourse
  • Soreness or itching in the vaginal area

Some couples want to explore more traditional or over the counter efforts before exploring infertility procedures. If you are trying to get pregnant and looking for resources to support your efforts, we invite you to check us out at Nisa Premier Hospital, Jabi, Abuja.

However, if you are looking for testing or options to increase your fertility chances of conception, you can find a fertility specialist her at Nisa Premier Hospital or call +2348172410027.

 

Polycystic ovary syndrome

Polycystic ovary syndrome

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a health problem that affects one in 10 women of childbearing age. Women with PCOS have a hormonal imbalance and metabolism problems that may affect their overall health and appearance. PCOS is also a common and treatable cause of infertility.

What is polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)?

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), also known as polycystic ovarian syndrome, is a common health problem caused by an imbalance of reproductive hormones. The hormonal imbalance creates problems in the ovaries.The ovaries make the egg that is released each month as part of a healthy menstrual cycle. With PCOS, the egg may not develop as it should or it may not be released during  ovulation as it should be.

PCOS can cause missed or irregular menstrual periods. Irregular periods can lead to:

  • Infertility (inability to get pregnant). In fact, PCOS is one of the most common causes of female infertility.
  • Development of cysts (small fluid-filled sacs) in the ovaries

Who gets PCOS?

Between 5% and 10% of women of childbearing age (between 15 and 44) have PCOS.1 Most often, women find out they have PCOS in their 20s and 30s, when they have problems getting pregnant and see their doctor. But PCOS can happen at any age after puberty, Women of all races and ethnicities are at risk for PCOS, but your risk for PCOS may be higher if you are obese or if you have a mother, sister, or aunt with PCOS.

What are the symptoms of PCOS?

Some of the symptoms of PCOS include:

  • Irregular menstrual cycle. Women with PCOS may miss periods or have fewer periods (fewer than eight in a year). Or, their periods may come every 21 days or more often. Some women with PCOS stop having menstrual periods.
  • Too much hair on the face, chin, or parts of the body where men usually have hair. This is called “hirsutism.” Hirsutism affects up to 70% of women with PCOS.
  • Acne on the face, chest, and upper back
  • Thinning hair or hair loss on the scalp; male-pattern baldness
  • Weight gain or difficulty losing weight
  • Darkening of skin, particularly along neck creases, in the groin, and underneath breasts
  • Skin tags, which are small excess flaps of skin in the armpits or neck area

What causes PCOS?

The exact cause of PCOS is not known. Most experts think that several factors, including genetics, play a role:

  • High levels of androgens . Androgens are sometimes called “male hormones,” although all women make small amounts of androgens. Androgens control the development of male traits, such as male-pattern baldness. Women with PCOS have more androgens than estrogens. Estrogens are also called “female hormones.” Higher than normal androgen levels in women can prevent the ovaries from releasing an egg (ovulation) during each menstrual cycle, and can cause extra hair growth and acne, two signs of PCOS.
  • High levels of insulin. Insulin is a hormone that controls how the food you eat is changed into energy. Insulin resistance is when the body’s cells do not respond normally to insulin. As a result, your insulin blood levels become higher than normal. Many women with PCOS have insulin resistance, especially those who are overweight or obese, have unhealthy eating habits, do not get enough physical activity, and have a family history of diabetes(usually type 2 diabetes). Over time, insulin resistance can lead to type 2 diabetes.

Can I still get pregnant if I have PCOS?

Yes. Having PCOS does not mean you can’t get pregnant. PCOS is one of the most common, but treatable, causes of infertility in women. In women with PCOS, the hormonal imbalance interferes with the growth and release of eggs from the ovaries (ovulation). If you don’t ovulate, you can’t get pregnant. Your doctor can talk with you about ways to help you ovulate and to raise your chance of getting pregnant.

Does PCOS raise my risk for other health problems?

Yes, studies have found links between PCOS and other health problems, including:

  • Diabetes. More than half of women with PCOS will have diabetes or pre-diabetes (glucose intolerance) before the age of 40.
  • High blood pressure. Women with PCOS are at greater risk of having high blood pressure compared with women of the same age without PCOS. High blood pressure is a leading cause of heart disease and stroke.
  • Unhealthy cholesterol. Women with PCOS often have higher levels of LDL (bad) cholesterol and low levels of HDL (good) cholesterol. High cholesterol raises your risk for heart disease and stroke.
  • Sleep apnea. This is when momentary and repeated stops in breathing interrupt sleep. Many women with PCOS are overweight or obese, which can cause sleep apnea. Sleep apnea raises your risk for heart disease and diabetes.
  • Depression and anxiety. Depression and anxiety are common among women with PCOS.
  • Endometrial cancer. Problems with ovulation, obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes (all common in women with PCOS) increase the risk of developing cancer of the endometrium (lining of the uterus or womb).

Will my PCOS symptoms go away at menopause?

Yes and no. PCOS affects many systems in the body. Many women with PCOS find that their menstrual cycles become more regular as they get closer to menopause However, their PCOS hormonal imbalance does not change with age, so they may continue to have symptoms of PCOS. Also, the risks of PCOS-related health problems, such as diabetes, stroke, and heart attack, increase with age. These risks may be higher in women with PCOS than those without.

How is PCOS diagnosed?

There is no single test to diagnose PCOS. To help diagnose PCOS and rule out other causes of your symptoms, your doctor may talk to you about your medical history and do a physical exam and different tests:

  • Physical exam. Your doctor will measure your blood pressure, body mass index,and waist size. He or she will also look at your skin for extra hair on your face, chest or back, acne, or skin discoloration. Your doctor may look for any hair loss or signs of other health conditions (such as an enlarged thyroid gland).
  • Pelvic exam. Your doctor may do a pelvic exam for signs of extra male hormones (for example, an enlarged clitoris) and check to see if your ovaries are enlarged or swollen.
  • Pelvic ultrasound (sonogram). This test uses soundwaves to examine your ovaries for cysts and check the endometrium (lining of the uterus or womb).
  • Blood tests. Blood tests check your androgen hormone levels, sometimes called “male hormones.” Your doctor will also check for other hormones related to other common health problems that can be mistaken for PCOS, such asthyroid disease.Your doctor may also test your cholesterol levels and test you for diabetes.

Once other conditions are ruled out, you may be diagnosed with PCOS if you have at least two of the following symptoms:

  • Irregular periods, including periods that come too often, not often enough, or not at all
  • Signs that you have high levels of androgens:
    • Extra hair growth on your face, chin, and body (hirsutism)
    • Acne
    • Thinning of scalp hair
  • Higher than normal blood levels of androgens
  • Multiple cysts on one or both ovaries.

How is PCOS treated?

There is no cure for PCOS, but you can manage the symptoms of PCOS. You and your doctor will work on a treatment plan based on your symptoms, your plans for children, and your risk for long-term health problems such as diabetes and heart disease. Many women will need a combination of treatments, including:

  • Steps you can take at home to help relieve your symptoms
  • Medicines

What steps can I take at home to improve my PCOS symptoms?

You can take steps at home to help your PCOS symptoms, including:

  • Losing weight. Healthy eating habits and regular physical activity can help relieve PCOS-related symptoms. Losing weight may help to lower your blood glucose levels, improve the way your body uses insulin, and help your hormones reach normal levels. Even a 10% loss in body weight (for example, a 150-pound woman losing 15 pounds) can help make your menstrual cycle more regular and improve your chances of getting pregnant.
  • Removing hair. You can try facial hair removal creams, laser hair removal, or electrolysis to remove excess hair. You can find hair removal creams and products at drugstores. Procedures like laser hair removal or electrolysis must be done by a doctor.
  • Slowing hair growth. A prescription skin treatment (eflornithine HCl cream) can help slow down the growth rate of new hair in unwanted places.

What types of medicines treat PCOS?

The types of medicines that treat PCOS and its symptoms include:

  • Hormonal birth control, including the pill, patch, shot, vaginal ring, and hormone intrauterine device (IUD). For women who don’t want to get pregnant, hormonal birth control can:
    • Make your menstrual cycle more regular
    • Lower your risk of endometrial cancer
    • Help improve acne and reduce extra hair on the face and body (Ask your doctor about birth control with both estrogen and progesterone.)
  • Anti-androgen medicines. These medicines block the effect of androgens and can help reduce scalp hair loss, facial and body hair growth, and acne. They are not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat PCOS symptoms. These medicines can also cause problems during pregnancy.
  • Metformin. Metformin is often used to treat type 2 diabetes and may help some women with PCOS symptoms. It is not approved by the FDA to treat PCOS symptoms. Metformin improves insulin’s ability to lower your blood sugar and can lower both insulin and androgen levels. After a few months of use, metformin may help restart ovulation, but it usually has little effect on acne and extra hair on the face or body. Recent research shows that metformin may have other positive effects, including lowering body mass and improving cholesterol levels.

What are my treatment options for PCOS if I want to get pregnant?

You have several options to help your chances of getting pregnant if you have PCOS:

    • Losing weight. If you are overweight or obese, losing weight through healthy eating, including eating right amount of calories and regular physical activity can help make your menstrual cycle more regular and improve your fertility.
  • Medicine. After ruling out other causes of infertility in you and your partner, your doctor might prescribe medicine to help you ovulate, such as clomiphene (Clomid).
  • In vitro fertilization (IVF). IVF may be an option if medicine does not work. In IVF, your egg is fertilized with your partner’s sperm in a laboratory and then placed in your uterus to implant and develop. Compared to medicine alone, IVF has higher pregnancy rates and better control over your risk for twins and triplets (by allowing your doctor to transfer a single fertilized egg into your uterus).
  • Surgery. Surgery is also an option, usually only if the other options do not work. The outer shell (called the cortex) of ovaries is thickened in women with PCOS and thought to play a role in preventing spontaneous ovulation. Ovarian drilling is a surgery in which the doctor makes a few holes in the surface of your ovary using lasers or a fine needle heated with electricity. Surgery usually restores ovulation, but only for six to eight months.

How does PCOS affect pregnancy?

PCOS can cause problems during pregnancy for you and for your baby. Women with PCOS have higher rates of:6

  • Miscarriage
  • Gestational diabetes
  • Preeclampsia
  • Cesarean section (C-section)

Your baby also has a higher risk of being heavy (macrosomia) and of spending more time in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).

How can I prevent problems from PCOS during pregnancy?

You can lower your risk of problems during pregnancy by:

  • Reaching a healthy weight before you get pregnant.
  • to see your healthy weight before pregnancy and what to gain during pregnancy.
  • Reaching healthy blood sugar levels before you get pregnant. You can do this through a combination of healthy eating habits, regular physical activity, weight loss, and medicines such as metformin.
  • Taking folic acid. Talk to your doctor about how much folic acid you need.

What is the latest research on PCOS?

Researchers continue to search for new ways to treat PCOS. Some current studies focus on:

  • Genetics and PCOS
  • Environmental exposure and PCOS risk
  • Ethnic and racial differences in PCOS symptoms
  • Medicines and supplements to restart ovulation
  • Obesity and its link to PCOS
  • Health risks for children of women

For more enquiries, give us a call on +234 817 420 9999 or visit us at our hospital.

Minimal Access Surgery

The Department of Gynaecology/Surgery at Nisa Premier Hospital offers a full spectrum of specialized surgeries – general and minimal access, bariatric surgery and gastrointestinal surgery. Minimal access surgery is a process where the surgeons do keyhole-sized incision and perform surgeries on internal organs leaving a small scar as against the conventional/open surgeries where surgeons performed large incisions. The department is equipped with state-of-the-art equipments to perform simple and complex surgeries ideal for improving your health at every stage.

In vitro fertilization (IVF)

In vitro fertilization (IVF) literally means ‘fertilization in glass,’ more simply explained as ‘test tube baby’. In the IVF process, eggs are removed from the ovaries of the female, at the same time sperms are collected from the male partner. The eggs and sperms collected are made to fertilize in the laboratory and the fertilized egg (embryo) is then implanted in the woman’s womb to make her conceive.

Indira IVF fertility experts believe that age must not be a factor of consideration when going for IVF process as we get a lot of infertile couples between the age of 25 – 30 years who think that they are too young to go for IVF treatment and it’s a last resort without even knowing the statistical figures which clearly indicates that the success rate of IVF or any fertility procedure decreases with age.

This technique evolved in late 1970s and was mainly used for females having tubal blockage but with the advent of superior equipment’s and technology coupled with increase in complications faced by infertile couples

IVF technique is now mainly used following cases:

– Females with both fallopian tubes blocked
– Females with one fallopian tube blocked and one open
– Borderline male sperm count
– Unexplained infertility cases
– Coupled who have failed the traditional treatments like timed intercourse, follicular monitoring, IUI etc.

Gone are those days when age was a constraint to experience motherhood and attaining menopause came along with sorrow of inability to reproduce. IVF (In Vitro Fertilization) has proved  to all those couples who’ve only dreamt of becoming parents but could never see their dream coming true due to insurmountable reasons.

 

What is a Multiple Pregnancy?

Often, people undergoing  an IVF treatment conceive multiple children. This can be great news for infertile couples as they get to be parents to multiple children when they couldn’t even have one. However, for many couples, this could be a bad news bringing upon them tonnes of pressure.

The reason why a multiple pregnancy occurs is because doctors often transfer multiple blastocysts or embryos into the mother’s womb.

This is wrong on the part of the doctor since they should know how life threatening or hard it could be for mother to carry multiple babies. Doctors must keep in mind various factors like the mother’s age and her health condition before mindlessly transferring multiple embryos into her womb.

Top IVF Fertility centers like Nisa IVF Treatment center, Nisa  IVF Treatment center, is helping women face the highest amount of difficulties in carrying multiple babies. Often, they plan for a single baby according to their financial resources and the time they can squeeze out of their very busy lives. But a multiple pregnancy can not only come out as a surprise but also a ruiner of their careful family planning. Many couples opting for IVF treatment are old and having a multiple pregnancy can be hazardous for the mother’s health. Also, multiple fetuses in the womb have high chances of being born with disabilities and malformed limbs or other body parts.

Expert IVF doctors and IVF specialists state that unfortunately, many doctors deliberately transfer multiple embryos so that they leave no scope for a failed transfer. They believe that by transferring multiple embryos, at least one of them would get implanted and impregnate the mother. It is ironic that these IVF doctors consider a marking of success in their records more important than the health of their patient.

Furthermore, the number of eggs and sperms that would fertilize and make embryos is unpredictable. It depends highly on the quality of the eggs and sperms of the parents. Hence, it is even more critical that IVF doctors keep a check on how many eggs are fertilized to form embryos and inform the parents accordingly so that it boils down to their decision about how many embryos they would like to be transferred into the womb.

Also, doctors claim that patients urge them and some even pressurize them to make sure that the treatment and eventual transfer results in a pregnancy otherwise they feel betrayed and looted. Thus, the doctors are forced to transfer several embryos.

Hence, it is very critical for patients to go through every option that they have while choosing an IVF doctor and IVF treatment facility. They must prepare themselves with utmost knowledge of IVF, its procedures and treatments available in their country, etc as a knowledgeable and well informed patient can never be fooled by greedy doctors.

Fertility & Assisted Conception

We are one of the pioneers of IVF therapy in Nigeria and have made the following landmark achievements in this area:
  • In 1998, the first government authenticated test tube baby in Nigeria (i.e. by In Vitro Fertilization, IVF) technique was born in this hospital.
  • Subsequently, Nigeria’s first IVF Twins, Triplets and children from frozen embryos were also born here.
  • Over 1,500 test tube (IVF) babies have been delivered at Nisa Premier Hospital to date.
  • Accreditation of Medicult International as the sole provider of In Vitro Maturation (IVM), a special fertility therapy option aimed at reduction of trauma and cost, in Africa.
  • Introduction of Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) aimed at the eradication of sickle cell anemia.
  • Research efforts are currently at an advanced stage in collaboration with Sheda Science & Technology Complex (SHESTCO). In this regard, the Founder, Dr. Ibrahim Wada has been a Research Associate in the Complex.